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El uso creciente de la IA para la salud presenta a los gobiernos, los proveedores y las comunidades: oportunidades y desafíos.

La inteligencia artificial (IA) es muy prometedora para mejorar la prestación de servicios de salud y medicina en todo el mundo, pero solo si la ética y los derechos humanos se colocan en el centro de su diseño, implementación y uso, según la nueva guía de la OMS publicada hoy. El informe Ética y gobernanza de la inteligencia artificial para la salud es el resultado de 2 años de consultas mantenidas por un panel de expertos internacionales designados por la OMS. Como toda tecnología nueva, la inteligencia artificial tiene un enorme potencial para mejorar la salud de millones de personas en todo el mundo, pero como toda tecnología, también puede ser mal utilizada y causar daños, dijo el Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director General de la OMS. «Este nuevo informe importante proporciona una guía valiosa para los países sobre cómo maximizar los beneficios de la IA, minimizando sus riesgos y evitando sus trampas«.

La inteligencia artificial se puede utilizar, y en algunos países ricos ya se está utilizando para mejorar la velocidad y precisión del diagnóstico y la detección de enfermedades; para ayudar con la atención clínica; fortalecer la investigación en salud y el desarrollo de medicamentos, y apoyar diversas intervenciones de salud pública, como la vigilancia de enfermedades, la respuesta a brotes y la gestión de sistemas de salud. La IA también podría capacitar a los pacientes para que tomen un mayor control de su propia atención médica y comprendan mejor sus necesidades cambiantes. También podría permitir a los países de escasos recursos y las comunidades rurales, donde los pacientes a menudo tienen acceso restringido a los trabajadores de la salud o profesionales médicos, salvar las brechas en el acceso a los servicios de salud. Sin embargo, el nuevo informe de la OMS advierte contra la sobreestimación de los beneficios de la IA para la salud, especialmente cuando esto ocurre a expensas de las inversiones y estrategias básicas necesarias para lograr la cobertura sanitaria universal.

También señala que las oportunidades están vinculados a los desafíos y riesgos, incluyendo la recolección y uso de datos de salud no ética; sesgos codificados en algoritmos y riesgos de la IA para la seguridad del paciente, la ciberseguridad y el medio ambiente. Por ejemplo, si bien la inversión del sector público y privado en el desarrollo y despliegue de la IA es fundamental, el uso no regulado de la IA podría subordinar los derechos e intereses de los pacientes y las comunidades a los poderosos intereses comerciales de las empresas de tecnología o los intereses de los gobiernos en la vigilancia y la vigilancia. control social. El informe también enfatiza que los sistemas capacitados principalmente con datos recopilados de personas en países de ingresos altos pueden no funcionar bien para las personas en entornos de ingresos bajos y medios.

Por lo tanto, los sistemas de inteligencia artificial deben diseñarse cuidadosamente para reflejar la diversidad de entornos socioeconómicos y de atención de la salud. Deben ir acompañadas de capacitación en habilidades digitales, participación comunitaria y sensibilización, especialmente para millones de trabajadores de la salud que requerirán alfabetización digital o reciclaje si sus roles y funciones están automatizados, y que deben lidiar con máquinas que podrían desafiar la decisión. toma de decisiones y autonomía de proveedores y pacientes. En última instancia, guiados por las leyes existentes y las obligaciones de derechos humanos, y las nuevas leyes y políticas que consagran los principios éticos, los gobiernos, los proveedores y los diseñadores deben trabajar juntos para abordar las preocupaciones sobre la ética y los derechos humanos en cada etapa del diseño, desarrollo e implementación de una tecnología de inteligencia artificial. Fuente: OMS.

186 comentarios en «La OMS publica el primer informe mundial sobre inteligencia artificial (IA) en salud»
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